J. P. Shrimali, B.L. Jain and Sanjay K. Sharma
|PUBLISHED DATE||June 2014|
|PUBLISHER||The Author(s) 2014. This article is published with open access at www.chitkara.edu.in/publications|
1.1 Near about 5.6% of the total tribal population of India live in “MEWAR” and “VAGGAR” region of Rajasthan state. In this region, lot of tribals are residing in the out-skirts of Banswara, Udaipur, Pratapgarh and Dungarpur districts. They prefer to live in the jungle with the nature and build their huts by using local material and local skill. It is imperative to introduce the innovative technology of the construction of rural cost-effective huts, which is based on the adoption of the local environment and constructed with the house-hold themselves without the need of the modern tools & equipment.
If, we analyze the building costs and its break up, it is observed that the main components of the building are foundation, wall, roof, door & window, flooring and finishing etc. The maximum expenditure for rural houses after construction of walls is in roofs which is 25 % of total expenditure. Therefore, to reduce the cost of the roof of the rural houses this study was under-taken. Necessary sustainable cost-effective techniques are developed for supporting system by use of Bamboo roof trusses and Bamboo spaced column for costeffective rural huts.
The average cost break-up of rural hut are shown as below A rural house is a structure providing the suitable place for protecting rural people from heat, cold, rain and wild animals. It can be built with different types of roof covering materials like thatch, tiles, slate, galvanized iron sheets and corrugated asbestos sheets over a supporting structure at present it is a baulk or trunk of a tree and the mud walls
In place of the high cost of supporting structure, bamboo trusses are introduced as the cost-effective system for supporting the roof covering material in place of baulk or trunk of a tree. It is a useful system that is simpler and lowers the cost of construction of rural houses.
Use of Bamboo in cost-effective hut construction seems to be a reasonable approach. Bamboo is abundantly available in Rajasthan. Due to its strength it is ideally suited for economical construction of building and structure. By weight it is stronger than steel and some structural timber. Species of bamboo like dendrocalamus strictus is tested and have been found to have almost half the yield strength of mild steel.'
1.2 Bamboo is a composite material consisting of long and parallel cellulose fibers embedded in a ligneous matrix. Bamboo has been used for many nonstructural purposes since long time. As it is a fast growing plant and has a number of versatile usage in the rural areas such as Agriculture, Handicraft, Food and Feed, Medicinal purpose, Interior Decoration, Furniture, Temporary bridges, Paper pulp etc.
Its use drastically curtails the high costs of high energy materials, reduces the impact on the natural environment. It easily works with simple tools, easy to build and readily repaired in the event of damage.
In Rajasthan it covers 940 square km area. This is approximately 2.5% of total area of Rajasthan state. It is mainly found in regions of Chittorgarh, Udaipur, Banswara and Abu Hills. The state produces 120 lakh of bamboo every year.
Bamboo in rural area is popularly known as “Poor man’s timber” in India, “Green gold” in Japan, as “Friend” in China, as “Brother” in Vietnam. It is one of the most important and useful plants in the world. Its strength, straightness, smoothness, lightness and extraordinary hardness makes it most suited for many purposes .
|ISSN||Print : 2321-3906, Online : 2321-7146|
It is the first initiative where in the bamboo has been used to form a standard truss and field tested and also the spaced column has been formed by using bamboo members and field tested. This seems to be a viable and sustainable proposition. However, more work needs to be done with the following variables. Different truss configuration, forms of spaced columns, types of roofing materials, types of connecting systems viz. rope connection, wire connection etc, Spacing of trusses and different span of trusses.