J. Today’s Ideas - Tomorrow’s Technol.

Review of Modeling and Simulation Technologies Application to Wind Turbines Drive Train

M Sh saleh, A A El-Betar, A M El-Asal

  • Download PDF
  • DOI Number

Wind energy, wind turbine, drive train, wind turbine gearbox, gear dynamics, multibody modeling, multibody dynamics, planetary stag and Gear contact.

PUBLISHED DATE December 2014
PUBLISHER The author(s) 2014. This article is published with open access at www.chitkara.edu.in/publications

In this paper, a review of past and recent developments in the wind turbine drive train is being studied. The objective is to review some of the basic approaches of drive train configuration in wind turbines and to identify drive train models including the modeling and simulation results of these models. In recent years, considerable effort has been devoted to modeling, design, and control of wind turbine including drive train .The number of publications on computational strategies (multibody dynamics) are widely used for design and simulation of wind turbines components has been steadily increasing. Lists and reviews many contributes of design and simulation method are given in survey papers [1], [2].


The call for improved renewable energy technologies are increasing due to the global warming .The wind has been harnessed as an energy source for over 1000 years. The overview goes back to the earliest publication on the predecessors of wind turbines, which are the windmills. These wind driven machines were mainly used for grinding grain and pumping water [3]. Their evolution led to the application of wind power for generating electricity near the end of the 19th.The majority of wind turbines currently in operation have the conventional Danish concept design that is, the three bladed rotor of such turbines is indirectly coupled with an electrical generator via a gearbox [4].

The development of a consistent modelling approach to correctly describe the dynamic behavior of a complex drive train in a wind turbine [5] in each type of wind turbines (vertical and horizontal), which has the same concepts put different in configurations with focus in horizontal type which widely use.

Page(s) 117-131
URL http://dspace.chitkara.edu.in/jspui/bitstream/1/495/1/22009_JOTITT_Saleh.pdf
ISSN Print : 2321-3906, Online : 2321-7146
DOI https://doi.org/10.15415/jotitt.2014.22009

This article summarizes in part the history of wind turbine drive train models, which used in simulation, and design of drive trains. a focus devoted to modelling gearboxes and mountings, which constitute the most expensive components in the wind turbine system.

Also a discussion was included about recent trends for modifications of gear models and gear design and its impact on net power of wind turbine. Finally a discussion about bearing history and its use in drive trains and how is magnetic bearing being widely used to eliminate the draw backs of ordinary one in terms of dynamics.

  • A . Palermo, D. Mundo, R. Hadjit, W. Desmet, 2012.” Multibody element for spur and helical gear meshing based on detailed three-dimensional contact calculations”. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mechmachtheory.2012.11.006 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mechmachtheory.2012.11.006
  • A braham Derks, August 12, 2008 “Development of a Wind turbine drive train engineering model”, MSc. Thesis.
  • A dam Ragheb, Magdy Ragheb, 2010. “Wind turbine gearbox technologies”, proceeding of the 1st international nuclear and renewable energy conference (INREC10), Amman, Jordan, march 2010.
  • A NSI/AGMA/AWEA 6006-A03, Standard for Design and Specifications of Gearboxes for Wind Turbines, 2010
  • Bianchi, D. B, 2007.” Wind turbine control system “Springer. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/1-84628-493-7
  • Clark, D.J. Jansen, M.J., Montague, G.T, 2004.” An Overview of Magnetic Bearing Technology for Gas Turbine Engines”, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, NASA/TM-2004-213177.
  • Concepts of Wind Turbine Engineering“, The American Society of Mechanical Engineering, NEY YORK NY, ISBN 0-7918-12057.
  • David Mcmillan, Graham W. Ault, 2010. “Techno-Economic Comparison of operational aspects for direct Drive and Gearbox-driven wind turbines “, IEE, Transactions on energy conversion, vol. 25, no. 1. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TEC.2009.2032596
  • E . Hau, 2000.” Wind turbines: fundamentals, technologies, Application and economics”, Berlin; London: Springer.
  • G. Tapia, A. Tapia, I. Zubia, X. Ostolaza and J. R. Saenz, “Electrical fault simulation and dynamic response of a Wind” Farm, International Conference on Power and Energy.
  • Gasch, R.; Twele, J, 2002.”Wind Power Plants Fundamentals: Design, Construction and Operation”. Berlin: Solarpraxis AG.
  • Geradin M, Cardona A, 2001.” Flexible multibody dynamics: a finite element Approach”. J. Wiley and Sons.
  • gonzlez-longatt francisco, regulski pawel, novanda happy, terzija Vladimir, 2011.”Effect of the Shaft Stiffness on the Inertial Response of the Fixed Speed Wind Turbines and Its contribution to the System Inertia”, 2011The International Conference on Advanced Power System Automation and Protection.
  • H . Li and Z. Chen, 2007.”Transient Stability Analysis of Wind Turbines with Induction Generators Considering Blades and Shaft Flexibility,” in Industrial Electronics Society, 2007. IECON 2007. 33rd Annual Conference of the IEE, pp. 1604-1609.
  • H auptmann S, Mulski S, Khn M, Mauer L, 2007.” Advanced drive train modeling in a virtual wind turbine using the multibody simulation code simpack”. In: Proceedings of the European wind energy conference. Milan.
  • IEC, Geneva, 2004. “Wind Turbine Generator Systems –Part 1: Safety Requirements”, International Electro Technical Commission, IEC 61400-1, Ed. 3”.
  • J. Tamura, T. Yamajaki, M. Ueno, Y. Matsumura and S. Kimoto, 2001. “Transient stability simulation of power System including wind generator by PSCAD/EMTDC”, IEE Porto Power Tech Conference.
  • Jan Helsen a, Frederik Vanhollebeke, Ben Marrant, Dirk Vandepitte, Wim Desmeta, 2011. “Multibody modelling of varying complexity for modal behaviour analysis of wind Turbine gearboxes”, science direct, Renewable Energy, (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2011.03.023). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2011.03.023
  • Joris L. M. Peeters, Dirk Vandepitte, Paul Sas, 2005.”Analysis of Internal Drive Train Dynamics in a Wind Turbine”, Published online in Wiley Interscience DOI:10.1002/.we.173, (www.interscience.wiley.com).
  • Joris L. M. Peeters, Dirk Vandepitte and Paul Sas, 2005. “Analysis of Internal Drive Train Dynamics in a Wind Turbine”, WIND ENERGY Wind Energ. (In press) Published online in Wiley Inter science, DOI: 10.1002/we.173.(www.interscience.wiley.com)
  • joris peeters, 2006. “Simulation of dynamic drive train loadsIn a wind turbine”, katholieke universities Leuven, faculties’ ingenieurswetens chapped, department werktuigkunde.
  • Kahraman A., Singh R., 1990.” Non-linear dynamics of spur gear pair”, Journal of sound and vibration, 142(1), 49-75 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-460X(90)90582-K
  • L i, H., Chen, Z., 2007. “Transient Stability Analysis of Wind Turbines with Induction Generators Considering Blades and Shaft Flexibility”, Industrial Electronics Society, IECON. 2007. 33rd Annual Conference of the IEE 5-8 Nov.2007 Page(s):1604 – 1609.
  • L itvin F. L., Fuentes A., 2004.” Gear geometry and applied theory”, second edition, Cambridge Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511547126
  • Manwell, J. F.; Mc Gowan, J. G.; Rogers, A. L. 2002. “Wind Energy Explained: Theory, Design and Application. Chichester”, NY: Wiley. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/0470846127
  • Morten Haastrup, Michael R. Hansen, Morten K. Ebbesen, 2007.” Modeling of Wind Turbine Gearbox Mounting “Modeling, Identi_cation and Control, Vol. 32, No. 4, 2011, pp. 141{149, ISSN 1890{1328}.
  • Musial W, Butterfield S, McNiff B, 2007. “Improving wind turbine gearbox reliability”. In: Proceedings of the European wind energy conference. Milan.
  • P. Ledesma, E. Agneholm, M. Martins, A. Perdana and O.Carlson, 2007. “Validation of fixed speed wind turbine Dynamic models with measured data, Renewable Energy 32 (8) (2007) 1301-1316. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2006.06.007
  • P.L.C. van der Valk, January 2010.”Model Reduction & Interface Modeling in Dynamic Sub structuring Application to a multi-megawatt wind turbine “, MSc.Thesis.
  • Parker RG, 2009. “Vibration of planetary gears with elastically deformable ring gears parametrically excited by mesh stiffness fluctuations”, In: Proceedings of the ASME 2009 IDETC/CIE. San Diego.
  • Peeters J, Vandepitte D, Sas P, Madrid.2003.”Dynamic analysis of an integrated drive train in A wind turbine”, Proceedings of the European Wind Energy Conference EWEC2003.
  • Peeters, J., 2006. “Simulation of dynamic drive train loads in a wind turbine”, Leuven, Katolieke Universiteit Leuven.
  • Pfeiffer, F., Glocker, C.: Multibody, 1996.” Dynamics with Unilateral Contacts”, Wiley, New York.
  • R asekhi Nejad A, Moan T., 2012.”Gear geometrical imperfections in large wind turbine drivetrains”, Proc. IMechE, Part B: J. Engineering Manufacture. 2012
  • S. Muyeen, M. Ali, R. Takahashi, T. Murata, J. Tamura, Y. Tomaki, A. Sakahara and E. Sasano,2007.” Comparative study on transient stability analysis of wind turbine generator system using different drive train models”, IET Renewable Power Generation, 1 (2) 131-141. http://dx.doi.org/10.1049/iet-rpg:20060030
  • S. M. Muyeen, M. H. Ali, R. Takahashi, T. Murata, J. Tamura, Y. Tomaki, A. Sakahara, and E.Sasano, 2007. “Comparative study on transient stability analysis of wind Turbine generator system using different drive train Models,” Renewable Power Generation, IET, vol. 1, pp.131- 141. http://dx.doi.org/10.1049/iet-rpg:20060030
  • S. M. Muyeen, J. Tamura, and T. Murata, 2009.” Stability Augmentation of a Grid-connected Wind Farm”, Second ed.: Springer.
  • Shabana AA, 1997.”Flexible multibody dynamics: review of Past and recent developments”, Multibody Syst. Dyn.1 (2), 189–222. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1009773505418
  • Shawki Abouel-seoud, Dr. Ibrahim Lotfy and Dr. Mohamed Elmorsy, 2011. “Dynamic analysis of wind turbine gearbox planet gear carrier using finite elements approach”, International Journal of Current Research Vol. 3, Issue, 12, pp.220-225, December, 2011, (http://www.journalcra.com).
  • Stefan Hauptmann, Steve Mulski, martin Kuhn,Lutz Mauer, ewec 2007. “Advanced drive train modelingIn a virtual wind turbine using the multibody simulation Code Simpack “.
  • Tamer M. Wasfy Ahmed K. Noor, September 2003.” Computational Strategies for flexible multibody systems”, Appl.Mech Revvol 56, no 5. Spera, D., 1995. “Wind Turbine Technology: Fundamental
  • T. Petru and T. Thiringer, “Modeling of wind turbines for Power system studies”, IEE Transactions on Power Systems, 17 (4) (2002) 1132-1139. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPWRS.2002.805017
  • Tommaso Tamarozzi, Pascal Ziegler, Peter Eberhard ,Wim Desmet,2013.” On the applicability of static modes switching in gear contact applications”, Multibody Syst Dyn (2013) 30:209–219, DOI 10.1007/s11044-013-9351-1.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11044-013-9351-1
  • Usaola P., 2001. “Dynamic incidence of wind turbines in network with high wind penetration”, Presented at IEE Power Engineering Society Summer Meeting, Vancouver, Canada, and 15th-19th.
  • V. Akhmatov and H. Knudsen, 1999.” Modeling of Windmill Induction generators in dynamic simulation Program”, International Conference on Electric PowerEngineering.
  • Waleed K. Ahmed, 2012.”Mechanical Modelling of Wind Turbine: Comparative Study”, international journal of renewable energy research, Vol.3, No.1, 2013.
  • Wriggers, P., 2006.” Computational Contact Mechanics”, Springer, Berlin. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-32609-0
  • X. Yao, L. Liang, and Z. Xing, 2009. “Dynamic Characteristic of the Drive Train of DFIG Wind Turbines during Grid Faults,” in Intelligent Computation Technology and Automation, ICICTA ‘09. Second International Conference on, 2009, pp. 503-506.