D.Kannamma and Dr. A. Meenatchi Sundaram
UHI; Uurban Mmicroclimate; Street Geometry; canyon; PEeT; Rrayman Pro
|PUBLISHED DATE||June 2015|
|PUBLISHER||The author(s) 2015. This article is published with open access at www.chitkara.edu. in/publications|
about 50% of the world’s population lives in cities, and the fraction is growing. Thus the study of the urban boundary layer and urban climate is of great importance.Since urban centres of the world have immense growth of population, their quality requires a very careful screening for sustainable future, growth and development. The quality of outdoor urban spaces is more significant in tropical countries like India, since the activities are shared between indoor and outdoor. There are clear links between the climate of a settlement and its potential sustainability. Its opportunities for gathering energy, its need for energy conservation and its ability to dispose of airborne wastes are largely controlled by the climate it experiences. Mmoreover, urban design decisions will create microclimates that either accentuate or moderate the properties of the background climate. Thus, there is a clear role for an applied urban climatology in the planning of sustainable settlements. Hhence there is a compulsive need for providing ambient environmental conditions outdoors, specific to the pedestrian users. The UHuhI (Uurban Hheat Island) phenomenon though is influenced by many factors, the role of urban design and professionals like architects, urban designers and planners cannot be ignored. Often they are neglected when urban design principles get executed onsite. Therefore there is a need for understanding the Uurban Mmicroclimate interaction with the urban geometry elements for deriving design solutions and guidelines for the future. Though is also dependent on multiple factors this paper focuses on its relation with various urban geometry elements specific to the urban streets. The unit chosen for the study is ‘Uurban Ccanyon’. To understand the microclimatic variation various profiles of urban canyons were selected. The Uurban Mmicroclimatic discomfort is given by the term “Stress” and the thermal index used for the measurement is PEeT (Physiological Eequivalent temperature) and RrayMman Pro is used for its calculation. The study of the canyons concluded with findings that proved significant impact of street geometry elements on the microclimatic stress of urban outdoors.
If Design is understood to mean the shaping and fashioning of the physical world for a conscious human purpose, then there are very few environments in which we live and work which have not been influenced by Design and all human artefacts are by definition designed. although this is not a common meaning given to Design, it is useful to begin with such a definition because it helps make clear that Design is not an esoteric activity ... but an activity with which all humans are actively involved and which fundamentally influences every person’s life .heath ,points out that the interaction and perception of space is partly cultural, partly social and partly physiological : ‘man’s relationship to his environment is a function of his sensory apparatus plus how this apparatus is conditioned to respond.’ The sensory apparatus includes visual, auditory and olfactory messages received via eyes, ears and nose, and thermal and tactile sensations through the receptor systems in skin and nerves. The climatic conditions in a man-made urban environment may differ appreciably from those in the surrounding natural or rural environs.... each urban manmade buildings, roads, parking area, factories etc creates around and above it a modified climate with which it interact . The first scientific study of the urban climate as such was conducted by Luke
Howard, who identified an urban heat island (uhI) in London . uhI is the increase in heat balance change; air temperature in densely built urban areas compared the temperatures of the surrounding country. uhI (urban heat Island) is a reflection of the totality of microclimatic changes brought about by man-made alterations of the urban surface .The impact of urban microclimate is influenced by both climatic and physical factors. This research paper focuses on the influence of street geometry element on the urban environment and this would help in deriving guidelines for climatically ambient urban space design for the professionals.
|ISSN||Print : 2321-3906, Online : 2321-7146|
Urban geometry and thermal properties of urban surfaces have been found to be the two main factors influencing urban climate. The Physiological equivalent Temperature (PeT) which defines the extent of ‘microclimatic Stress’ in this study is observed to be significantly influenced by the geometry of urban canyons. There is a need for design best practise methods for making urban spaces conducive to its users especially the pedestrians. The positive interaction between urban canyon geometry elements and the climatic factors will help in momentous reduction of microclimatic stress outdoors; there by some aspect of uhI (urban heat Island) can also be minimized. hence role of architects, urban Designers and Planners prove to be important in creating a climatically ambient atmosphere outdoors in their future ventures.