Investigations were carried out on the changes in properties of concrete when steel slag is used in concrete in its normal form and after modifying its properties by infusing it with nano silica. The sand is replaced by steel slag and modified steel slag by 10%, 20% and 30% in M30 grade concrete. Tests results on compressive strength and workability of concrete revealed that, compressive strength of concrete cubes after 28 days increased by 25.4%, 26.4% and 45.2% for 10%, 20% and 30% respectively after replacing sand by steel slag. After modification of steel slag properties by infusing it with nano silica, the 28 days compressive strength was observed to be increased by 38.19%, 35.80% and 27.89% for 10%, 20% and 30% as compared to traditional concrete mix respectively after replacement. Infusing steel slag with nano silica increased the compressive strength of concrete mix by 20.17%, 25.74% and 49.64% for 10%, 20% and 30% respectively when compared to normal steel slag concrete mix. It was also observed that using steel slag in concrete mix also influences on water consumption in concrete mix. Workability tests conducted using 0.45 and 0.5 w/c ratio and the inference was that the workability increased with the increase in percentage of steel slag but workability decreases with the increase in percentage of modified steel slag.
Abbreviations: CS: Compressive strength, NS: Nano silica, INSS: Infused Nano Silica Steel slag, FA: Fine aggregate, CA: Coarse aggregate, PSD: Particle size distribution, TC: Traditional concrete, SSC: Steel slag concrete,
Concrete is the main heterogeneous composite material used in construction industry, whose main ingredients are cement, FA, CA, water. FA and CA are derived from natural resources which are depleting at a alarming rate due to infrastructure projects. Therefore searching for alternatives for natural aggregates is significantly gaining momentum all over the world. Industrial solid wastes with moderate to high specific gravity are considered to be useful in making concrete.
The utilization of solid wastes in construction at low cost and reducing load on natural resources is one of the innovative ideas globally accepted (P. Ziemkiewicz 1998; Singh, S.P. et al., 2013) for sustainable development. Globally, the estimated quantity of solid wastes generation was 12 billion tons in the year 2002 (Pappu et al., 2007). Among this amount, 11 billion tons were industrial solid wastes and 1.6 billion tons were municipal solid wastes and likely to touch 19 BTY-1 by 2025 (Yoshizawa et al., 2004). Asia contribute 4.4 BTY-1 of solid wastes with 6% share from India (Yoshizawa et al., 2004; CPCB, 2000) and Malaysia contributes 150000TD-1.The disposal of these wastes has become a major environmental problem in Malaysia and thus the possibility of recycling the solid wastes for use in construction materials is of increasing importance. (Pappu et al.,2007).Similarly, the recycling of hazardous wastes for use in construction materials and the environmental impact of such practices have been studied for many years (Cyr et al., 2004). Steel slag (SS) is one of such solid wastes (Caijun Shi 2004), the average SS generated data on plant wise in 2009-10 and 2010-11 are given in Table 1. SS finds application in various construction activities Table 2 which is a by product of steel industry. For bulk concrete uses, like large foundations, high density concrete (nuclear applications) and marine structures, SS has some merit. When considering SS for structural concrete applications, special care must be taken to confirm that the aggregate is totally stable, and that the Alkali Silica Reaction potential is within specified limits. SS has been used extensively around the world as: railway ballast, trickling filter bed media, pipe bedding, water course protection, land reclamation, bulk fill embankments and gabion stone. (Kevin A. H 1996, J.W. Lim et al 2016).
From the literature survey we have envisaged that there is significant application of SS in civil engineering applications. Whereas further use of SS by infusing with NS is yet to be studied using pin point experiments.
Therefore the present study involves experimental investigations on properties of concrete by using of SS and NS infused SS as a partial replacement to FA.
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